Use your Browsers find function to find what
Japan (Washington State University)
Early Japan (Japan-guide.com)
Shinto: A Brief History
Jomon Period (ICT)
Birth of a Nation
under Chinese Influences (ICT)
Japanese Emperors (Japan-guide.com)
Japanese Buddhism: A Historical
Overview (Aizu Historical Project)
Schauwecker's Guide to Japan: Confucianism
The Estate System (Aizu
Japanese Art History
The Emperor System
and Japan's Royal Family (Japan Inc.)
Japanese Art History: Painting
Poetry (Washington State University)
Zen Buddhism (Metalab, UNC)
the Way of Zazen (COIN)
Bulls (Zen Poems and Pictures) (SFU)
Zen Buddhism: Koan
The Tea Ceremony
Diary of Lady Sarashina
100 Poems by
100 Poets (13th century) (University of Virginia)
Noh Plays (University
Noh Masks (Iijnet.or.jp)
Kang Duk Won Karate Association)
Origins of the Samurai (David
the Byakkotai (Aizu)
Learning for Women (Washington State University)
Kabuki for Everyone (Fix.co.jp)
Will Adams: My
Coming to Japan, 1611 (Internet East Asia Sourcebook)
Meiji Japan (1868-1912)
Japan (Sage Colleges)
Constitution of the Empire
of Japan, 1889 (Hanover)
Alice Bacon, How
Japanese Ladies Go Shopping, 1890
Lt. Sakurai, The
Attack on Port Arthur, 1905 (East Asia Sourcebook)
Imperial Rescript Declaring
War (1941) (Cook)
Imperial Rescript Ending
War (1945) (Cook)
Hiroshima Archive (Lewis
World War II Resources (Metalab,UNC)
Constitution of Japan,
Text Initiative (Virginia)
Guide (Council on East Asian Libraries)
Japanese History: Resources
Stanford Guide to Japan Information
Schauwecker's Guide to Japan
Overview and Maps
of China, India, and Japan (Ross)
Folktales from Japan
(University of Pittsburgh)
Japan Literature Net (Jali.or.jp)
Japan's tendency to limit its contacts with the outside world ended
in 1853, when a US naval squadron coerced trading concessions from the
last of the Tokugawa shoguns.
- 1868 Meiji Restoration; overthrow of Tokugawa regime and
restoration of imperial power.
- 1872 Modernization along Western lines. Japan's strong military
tradition becomes state-directed.
- 1889 Constitution modeled on Bismarck's Germany adopted.
- 1894-1895 War with China; ends in Japanese victory.
- 1904-1905 War with Russia; ends in Japanese victory. Formosa
and Korea annexed.
- 1914 Japan joins World War I on Allied side. Sees limited
- 1919 Versailles peace conference gives Japan limited territorial
gains in the Pacific.
- 1923 Yokohama earthquake kills 140,000.
- 1927 Japan enters period of radical nationalism, and introduces
the notion of a "coprosperity sphere" in southeast Asia under Japanese
control. Interpreted in the USA as a threat to its Pacific interests.
- 1931 Manchuria invaded, placed under Japanese control and
- 1937 Japan launches full-scale invasion of China.
- 1938 All political parties placed under one common banner;
Japan effectively ruled by militarists.
- 1939 Undeclared border war with Soviet Union results in Japanese
- 1940 Fall of France in Europe; Japan occupies French Indo-China.
- 1941 USA imposes total trade embargo, including oil, on Japan
thereby threatening to stifle its military machine. Japan responds
in December by launching attack on US fleet at Pearl Harbor and invading
US, British and Dutch possessions in the Pacific.
- 1942 Japan loses decisive naval battle of Midway. Thereafter
the tide of war turns as Japanese forces are driven back toward their
- 1945 Huge US bombing campaign culminates in atomic bombing
of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Soviet Union declares war on Japan. Emperor
Hirohito surrenders, gives up divine status. Japan placed under US
military government with Gen. MacArthur installed as supreme commander
of Allied Powers in Japan.
- 1947 Japanese constitution comes into effect; modeled on
USA's, but retains emperor in ceremonial role.
- 1950 Korean War. US army contracts lead to quick expansion
of Japanese economy.
- 1952 Treaty of San Francisco. Japan regains independence.
Industrial production recovers to 15% above 1936 levels.
- 1955 Merger of conservative parties to form Liberal Democratic
Party (LDP) which governs for next 38 years.
- 1964 Tokyo Olympics. Bullet train (Shinkansen) inaugurated.
Japan admitted to OECD.
- 1973 Oil crisis. Economic growth cut. Government-led economic
reassessment decides to concentrate on high-tech industries.
- 1976 LDP shaken by Lockheed bribery scandal; in subsequent
election remains in power but fails to win outright majority for first
- 1979 Second oil crisis. Growth continues at 6% per year.
- 1980 Elections: restoration of LDP overall majority.
- 1982 Honda establishes first car factory in USA.
- 1988 Japan becomes world's largest aid donor and overseas
- 1989 Death of Emperor Hirohito. Recruit-Cosmos bribery scandal
leads to resignation of Prime Minister Noburo Takeshita; replaced
by Sosuke Uno, forced to resign over sexual scandal. Tokyo stock market
- 1991-1992 LDP torn by factional disputes, further financial
scandals and the issue of electoral reform.
- 1993 Reformists split from LDP and create new parties. Elections;
LDP loses power. Morihiro Hosokawa becomes prime minister at head
of seven-party coalition.
- 1994 Hosokawa resigns. Withdrawal of Social Democratic Party
of Japan (SDPJ) causes collapse of coalition two months later. New
three-party coalition includes LDP and SDPJ.
- 1994 Opposition parties unified by creation of Shinshinto
by Ichiro Ozawa. Implementation of far-reaching political and electoral
reforms designed to eradicate "money politics."
- 1995 January, Kobe earthquake kills more than 5,000 people.
- 1996 Elections: ruling LDP returned to power with reduced
majority. Ryutaro Hashimoto forms LDP minority government.
- 1996 Copper trader Yasuo Yamanaka arrested, accused of incurring
losses of US$2.6 billion while acting for the Sumitomo Corporation.
- 1997 Economy enters severe recession.
- 1998 Crisis over reform of banking and financial system.
Keizo Obuchi replaces Hashimoto.