Maps and geology
A STRUCTURE thought to be the world's oldest building, nearly twice the age of the great pyramids of Egypt, has been discovered. The rectangular stone ziggurat under the sea off the coast of Japan could be the first evidence of a previously unknown Stone Age civilisation, say archeologists.
The monument is 600ft wide and 90ft high and has been dated to at least 8000BC. The oldest pyramid in Egypt, the Step Pyramid at Saqqara, was constructed more than 5,000 years later.Check out underwater pyramids.....
The Geological Society of Japan. The Geological Society of Japan (JGS) is one of the oldest learned societies of Japan (founded in 1883), currently organized by about 5300 geologists including geological consulting engineers, school teachers and undergraduate and graduate students as well as researchers. The primary purpose of the JGS is to promote and to popularize geology and related sciences...The JGS has 12 Specialist Groups; Regional Geology, Stratigraphy, Structural Geology, Sedimentology, Petrology, Volcanology, Environmental Geology, Engineering Geology, Marine Geology, Active Geology, Numerical Geology and Paleontology (applied). New findings and research results are reported and discussed at the Annual Meeting held in spring or autumn. Current research interests are focused to environmental geology and natural hazards as well as regional geology and tectonics of the Japanese Islands, as one of the most active convergent margin of the Pacific plate...Publications include a monthly research journal in Janapese and English (The Journal of the Geological Society of Japan), The Geological Society News (monthly), a research publication at irregular intervals in Japanese and English (The Memoirs of the Geological Society of Japan) and a quarterly research journal in English only (The Island Arc) for international distribution...The GSJ has an international research cooperation and publication exchanges with some geological societies, and is keen to promote reciprocal agreements with many other geological societies of the world.
GSJ Volcanology Section. Geological Society of Japan, Volcanology Section Homepage. Includes: "Geological Maps of Volcanoes are series of geological map of active volcanoes in Japan. These maps show the geology and evolutional histories of active volcanoes with some introductions of volcanological terms. The purpose of this project is to supply the basic informations for disaster avoidance, enlightenment for public and education. Up to now, 8 maps were published with the collaborations of many researchers of universities."
JAPAN GIS/Mapping Sciences Resource Guide. Welcome to the third edition (currently under construction) of the Japan GIS/Mapping Sciences Resource Guide. It continues the information transfer of the first and second releases in yet an even more thorough, updated and polished manner. Six new directories have been added along with hundreds of lines of new information. The Services and Main Corporate Directory in particular have been the subject of enrichment. The material presented on these pages reflects literally thousands of interesting, enjoyable and freely given hours of research. Originally the product of Master's thesis efforts in 1996 the Guide has rapidly become the premier Web-based resource to comprehensive information on Japanese GIS and related Mapping Sciences.
GeoLis Search - Japanese Geological Literature - Search Engine.
Eruption of Kuju Volcano. Kuju volcano is located in the NE of Aso Caldera. Kuju volcano consists of many stratovolcanoes and lava domes... Kuju volcano is active through Holocene and have several historical eruption records. The historical eruption records do not suggest magmatic eruptions but phreatic or hydrothermal eruptions. Most youngest magmatic eruption, estimated from geological record is about 1.7ka erupted Kuokinawake lava dome and pyroclasticflow in the eastern part of Kuju...October, 1995 Eruption. - Eruption was began at about 18:00 October 11, 1995 in the northern flank of Hossyo dome, the central part of Kuju volcano without remarkable seismicity. About 400m long fissure running west to east effused ash and small lahar. Ash fall was observed in Kumamoto city, 60km NW of the volcano. But activity was decreased soon and in October 12, there was only white vapor fumarole about 400m high (JMA reports). The fissure formed several sub-fissures and craters... [Many good photographs in picture gallery section.]
Eruption of Kuju Volcano - Aerial Photographs.
Hokkaido-Komagakate Volcano. Hokkaido-Komagatake is located 30 km north of Hakodate City in the southern Hokkaido island. It is a pyroxene andesite stratovolcano. At the summit, there is a 2km wide horseshoe shaped caldera opening to the east. The edifice extends 17km in diameter at the foot, and is mostly covered by historic or prehistoric pyroclastic falls, flows and surges. There are also debris avalanche deposits around the volcano. They have many hummocks and, in the southern foot of the volcano, form dammed lake, O-numa, Ko-numa and so on. The main stratovolcano edifice that consists of andesite lava and pyroclastics were formed several ten thousand (40-30 ka) years ago (Stage I). After that stage, the activities of the volcano were becoming more explosive. Stage II activity started with the collapse of the summit and formed Komagatake Debris Avalanche Deposit (30-23ka). Subsequently, Plinian eruptions accompanying with pyroclastic flows occurred twice until 17ka. At 6ka and 3ka, Stage III activities were Plinian Eruptions with pyroclastic flows. In Stage IV, historical records of the large eruptions are recorded in 1640, 1694, 1856, 1929 (see Table). These eruptions were Plinian eruptions with pyroclastic flows. It is characteristic that the precursors of eruption were recognized just before the eruptions (one day or several hours before) and the eruptions were become quiet in several days.
Ring of Fire. The natural environments of the Pacific "Ring of Fire" have been recreated in the Osaka Aquarium and populated with over 35,000 specimens representing 380 species. The natural environments of the "Ring of Fire", the volcanic perimeter which surrounds the Pacific Ocean, has been reproduced in 14 separate exhibits in the Osaka Aquarium. The aquarium is centered around a huge 9 meter deep water tank which represents the Pacific Ocean.
A Very Rude Awakening - Earthquake at Ashiya City. A Report from Ashiya City, in the heart of the disaster. At 5:46 am on January 17, 1995 the southern part of Hyogo Prefecture in Japan experienced an earthquake that registered 7.2 on the Richter scale. The destruction from this earthquake has left over 5,000 people dead, and many missing. Over 25,000 buildings or houses were destroyed or severely damaged. 100's of thousands of people are without a place to sleep. Public transportation links with the area were cut off, and many could not be repaired in less than 6 months. Water and gas are expected to be off for at least 1 month for most people. Even today, Friday, January 20th, 4 days after the quake, strong aftershocks are being felt. Some as high as 4 on the Richter scale. People that have survived relatively intact are barely able to sleep due to the stress and fear of more tremors.
Toyohama Tunnel: Questions and Answers. Brief report of a disaster involving a landslide at a tunnel entrance in Hokkaido, Japan. - Extract: On Saturday, February 10, 1996, a landslide occurred on a snowy mountain on the west coast of Hokkaido, Japan's northernmost main island. A part of the landslide was an immense boulder (approximately 230 feet long and 100 feet thick) which struck the Toyohama Tunnel where it enters the mountain. When the boulder hit the tunnel portal, a bus and at least one car were trapped in the tunnel and crushed. 22 people were killed in this disaster.
Eruption of a Goddess: the Unzen Volcano. Alison P. Jones. Page from a newsletter. -- Extract: The Unzen volcano, located in the Shimabara Peninsula of western Kyushu, is one of the most active volcanoes in Japan. After 198 years of dormancy the Unzen volcano, in Kyushu, also known as the 'Goddess', erupted in 1990 and a five year period of activity followed. The eruption was characterised by lava dome forming eruptions and pyroclastic flows, of which the latter, 10,000 were recorded seismologically by JMA. My interest in the area as an earth scientist are the complex sequences of volcaniclastic deposits that resulted, the estimated volume of which is 1.2 times 108 m3 . -- with references, details of disastrous effects and a poem!
Japan Society of Geoinformatics. Type of Web Page: One page with links. Extract: JSGI was established in 1990. It has about 700 members such as geologists, geophysicists, geographers, civil engineers, school teachers and so on. Our journal "Geoinformatics" is quarterly published. IAMG (International Association for Mathematical Geology) is our sister society.
Publication List of K. Tamaki - English Articles Only. - Type of Web Site - Titles of about 40 papers mostly relating to the Japan region. Extract: Nakanishi, M., K. Tamaki, and K. Kobayashi, Magnetic anomaly lineations from Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous in the west-central Pacific Ocean, Geophys. J. Int., 109, 701-719, 1992. -- Furukawa, M., K. Tamaki, A. Mizuno, and M. Kimura, Morphology and geology of the Magellan Trough area in the Central Pacific, Geology and Offshore Mineral Resources of the Central Pacific Basin, Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources Earth Science Series, 14, 55-67, 1992. -- Masalu, D. C. P., K. Tamaki, and K. Kobayashi, Paleomagnetism of the seamounts forming the Joban seamount chain in the northwestern Pacific, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 45, 503-534, 1993.
Geology in Japan. As seen by amateur geologist and naturalist. English language version available. Extract: walk around entire Japan from Miyako Islands to the south to Hokkaido in the north. Personally I am interested in the pre-Cretaceous Japan, I feel at home in the Chichibu Belt, Chugoku Belt, Tanba-Mino Belt, and Southern Kitakami Zone. But, fearless amateurs go and see anything...Produced by Kaino, Yasuo.
Field science in Japan. - by Alison Jones. Type of Web Site - One page from a newsletter. -- Extract: My field research involves observing and recording in detail, sediment sequences which are mainly located in mountain and upland areas, and given the nature of the sediments I study they are invariably Quaternary sections . The first step is to draw the section from a distance, sketching in the main boundaries between different units of sediments. The units are then examined in turn and I record such details as the sediment size, colour, the roundness of individual particles, any changes in the grain size of sediments in a unit, any structures that may exist, the orientation of individual grains and the rock type of any gravel clasts. A geological log of the section will be drawn, samples collected for further analysis in the laboratory and the section itself photographed extensively, so I have a detailed record of the sediment sequence. --
Decade volcanoes in Japan. - Unzen Volcano etc.
Landslides in Japan. Welcome to the "LANDSLIDE IN JAPAN" HomePage. The 5th revision of "Landslides in Japan" focuses on the current understanding of landslide origin, and discusses some of the problems concerning landslide investigations and research in Japan. 28 recent landslides were introduced in this volume. We sincerely hope that these efforts will contribute to the reduction of the damages.
Japan and Its Nature (landform, Geology and Climate). Part of Landslides in Japan Website. Extract: Engineering Geologic Structure of the Japanese Archipelago. - Based on the major geologic divisions and characteristics of the earth materials during slope movement, the Japanese archipelago is divided into 15 engineering geologic divisions. Furthermore, on the basis of plate tectonic research and assessment of slope movement, the 15 engineering geologic divisions are further subdivided into five distinct tectonic zones, discussed below.
Japan's Underwater Stone Monuments. Japan's Mysterious Submerged Stone Structures: New evidence suggests they may have been used by Man. By Laura Lee. Man-made, made by Nature, or did humankind finish what Nature started? These enigmatic, sunken stone structures off Okinawa, Japan, located 60 to 100 feet beneath the ocean surface, have the Japanese wondering if their homeland was once part of the lost continent of Mu. Stone terraces, right angled block and walls, and stone circles encompassing hexagonal columns look intriguingly, if not conclusively, man made. A few more clues: an encircling road, what might be post holes supported long-gone wooden structures, what look like cut steps, and castles with similar archietecture located nearby and still on land.
Underwater Pyramids - Japan. One of the greatest discoveries in the history of archaeology was made last summer, off Japan There, spread over an amazing 311 miles on the ocean floor, are the well-preserved remains of an ancient city. Or at the very least, a number of closely related sites. In the waters around Okinawa and beyond to the small island of Yonaguni, divers located eight separate locations beginning in March 1995. That first sighting was equivocal - a provocative, squared structure, so encrusted with coral that its manmade identity was uncertain. Then, as recently as the summer of 1996, a sports diver accidentally discovered a huge, angular platform about 40 feet below the surface, off the southwestern shore of Okinawa. The feature’s artificial provenance was beyond question. Widening their search, teams of more divers found another, different monument nearby. Then another, and another. They beheld long streets, grand boulevards, majestic staircases, magnificent archways, enormous blocks of perfectly cut and fitted stone - all harmoniously welded together in a linear architecture unlike anything they had ever seen before.
Geology Course. The Islands of Japan. apan consists of a chain of islands (archipelago) in the Pacific Ocean formed by volcanic action. The archipelago is 2,000 miles long and consists of some 3, 500 islands. Currently there are more than 190 active volcanoes. It is part of the earth's "Ring of Fire". Magma (liquid rock) forced its way through the weaker parts of the earth's crust (volcanic eruptions), and when the magma from many eruptions cooled it gradually formed the islands of Japan. Earthquakes and eruptions are frequent in areas of active volcanic activity. In the case of Japan, it sits where the Pacific and Philippine plates dive under the Eurasian plate. Plates can be best described as the earth's outer skin. When pressure builds up and the plates move, earthquakes occur. Since Japan is not connected to a continent, the pieces of land formed are completely surrounded by water and thus are islands.
Japan Directory. Japan Information Network.